Editor’s Note: Throughout the 2016 presidential campaign, The Observer will sit down with Notre Dame experts to break down the election and its importance to students. In this ninth installment, Associate News Editor Rachel O’Grady asks the director of the Rooney Center for the Study of American Democracy, Christina Wolbrecht, about the role of women in politics in the 2016 election. Rachel O’Grady: Over our Easter break, Bernie Sanders won a number of states (Hawaii, Alaska, Washington) and is slowly chipping away at Hillary Clinton’s lead. Could Sanders pull out the nomination? CW: At Notre Dame, most students remain registered in their home states, so I hope and expect that many students have already had a chance to participate in their state’s primary via absentee ballot. One downside of a caucus system is it makes it difficult for out-of-state residents to have a say. College students should be paying attention to the issues that they feel will have the biggest impact on our country and world today and in the years to come, be that the environment or trade or income inequality or civil rights or the size of government or insert your passion here. I’d encourage students to learn as much as they can about the issues they care about and about the arguments each candidate is making on the issues that matter most to you. I don’t have any advice on what students should be paying attention to, but I do very much hope that our students are indeed paying close attention to this election and will become informed and effective participants in our political process.Tags: 2016 Election, 2016 Election Observer, christina wolbrecht, Rooney Center for the Study of American Democracy ROG: Clinton has the potential to be the first female President of the United States. Seeing as your area of study focuses on women in politics, I’ll intentionally leave this question open [and] broad for you. What implications does this have on politics as a whole? Moreover, why has it taken so long to even conceive of women in the highest office in the land? Christina Wolbrecht: Sanders indeed had a good Easter weekend with victories in three far western states. Sanders has done particularly well in caucus states, which reward particularly passionate supporters who are willing (and able) to wait in long lines to cast a vote for their candidate. Some have argued that momentum is on Sanders’ side, and there is no question that he has emerged as a far more popular and successful candidate for the Democratic nomination than many expected. It remains unlikely he will secure the nomination, however. Leaving aside the issue of superdelegates, Hillary Clinton still leads in the number of pledged delegates, and Sanders would have to secure overwhelming victories in many of the remaining states. This is a particular challenge for him as, unlike many Republican states, Democratic rules require delegates to be allocated by proportional representation. This means even in states where Sanders edges out Clinton, she still continues to pick up delegates. It remains possible for Sanders to win — and in this election, anything seems possible — but unlikely.Whether Sanders wins the nomination or not, we can and should expect his candidacy to have had an effect on the political system. The level of support for his candidacy suggests real frustration on the left (just as we are seeing real frustration on the right) with some of the policies and practices of current Democratic politicians. Those politicians, including Hillary Clinton, have little choice but to hear that message, and strong incentives to respond to those concerns. CW: Income inequality is significant in the U.S. and has attracted increasing attention during this electoral cycle. I would emphasize that income and wealth inequality have been on the rise throughout the industrialized world; what most distinguishes the U.S. is how little our public policy does to alleviate the effects of that disparity. Addressing the causes of income inequality is difficult, as they are rooted in broad shifts in the economy and society at national and global levels. Much of inequality is driven by stagnant wages in the lower and middle income deciles and staggering income growth for the most wealthy. What candidates can do is propose policies to alleviate the hardships and uneven opportunities that inequality causes. Such policies might range from changes in the tax code to education policy to direct social welfare benefits. I would encourage students to look closely at the sorts of very specific policy solutions the candidates are proposing to address those conditions, and to be attentive to debates about how effective those policies would really be.ROG: Taking it back to college campuses, particularly here at ND, where the Indiana primary is fast approaching, what is something we, as college students, should be paying particular attention to? CW: Parties are constantly transforming in response to changed realities, electoral outcomes, and political debate. The Republican primary race has certainly been unprecedented in many ways and challenges many assumptions about the ways in which party nominations work in the U.S. However, the race is not unprecedented in the sense of revealing important divisions within the party — the same could be said of the Democrats. Parties throughout our history have been characterized by divisive figures and issues which split parties internally; examples include Teddy Roosevelt’s Bull Moose break from the Republican party in 1912 over Progressivism and the Dixiecrats split from the Democratic party over civil rights in 1948. One can also think of the riots outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago or the delegates booing nominee Barry Goldwater at the Republican convention in 1964. As in all of those cases, I would expect the outcome of the 2016 primary season will be that the Republican party will change in important ways, although exactly how remains to be seen and depends in part on whether Trump actually secures the nomination.Some would argue that Trump represents a different challenge to the Republican party than the historical cases I have mentioned, each of which was rooted in a fundamental disagreement about the ideological and policy direction of the party. I agree. Trump disrupts the Republican party in many other ways, including his unorthodox approaches to political debate and campaigning, and his expressed willingness to violate a number of democratic norms. These are issues of great importance to our political process and political community. On the question of party divisions, however, as social scientists and journalists scramble to understand the sources of Trump’s support, it is increasingly clear that his supporters tend to share priorities and a view of the world that distinguishes them from non-Trump supporters in the Republican base. In that sense, this is not so different than many other internal splits parties have faced. ROG: Income inequality is an increasingly prevalent issue. Do any candidates provide real solutions, and more importantly, can any of them implement their policies to actually improve the current income disparity? CW: There are many reasons why the U.S. has yet to have a female president. Politics has been traditionally viewed as a male endeavor. One of the questions the Gallup organization has asked the longest — since the 1930s — is whether citizens would vote for an “otherwise qualified” woman for president. Until the 1970s, fewer than half of American said they would — there are still voters who say they would not. Our expectations for the presidency — assertive, bold, strong, warrior — are at odds with our stereotypes about women. Women have traditionally entered politics later in life than men, usually when their children are older, leaving them less time to climb the political career ladder to the very top. Women have been dramatically under-represented — or not represented at all — in the careers that have produced presidents in the 20th and 21st centuries — generals, vice presidents, senators and governors — meaning that the eligible pool for possible female presidents is very small compared to the eligible pool of men. All of these factors — and more — have produced a context in which the nomination of a woman for president has been very long in coming in the U.S.ROG: Turning to look at the GOP, it looks like the party is starting to split amongst Trump supporters and the “Never Trump” set. Could we see a real shift in the Republican party over the next year, or even few years? What does that look like?
“We are not happy about the last performance. Everyone knows at half-time and after game…We want to sustain the top level. There are a lot of games and sometimes it is a challenge and it is tough.”Arsenal moved up into fourth in midweek as they beat Cardiff and Chelsea lost 4-0 at Bournemouth.Deadline Day signing Denis Suarez is available for the Gunners as they look to deal another blow to City’s title ambitions. Defender Vincent Kompany remains absent for City but goalkeeper Ederson is expected to be fine after suffering a slight knee injury in the defeat to Newcastle. Benjamin Mendy is a doubt after missing City’s last two matches.Arsenal captain Laurent Koscielny has returned to full training after scans confirmed he did not suffer a fractured jaw against Manchester United.Arsenal said scans revealed only “bruising and soft tissue swelling” to Koscielny’s face and jaw, giving Emery the option of picking him amid a defensive injury crisis.Danny Welbeck and Sokratis Papastathopoulos (both ankle), Hector Bellerin and Rob Holding (both knee) remain out. Henrikh Mkhitaryan could feature after overcoming a foot problem.Manchester City have won their last three Premier League games against Arsenal – they’ve haven’t won four consecutive top-flight games against the Gunners since April 1937.Arsenal have lost seven of their last 11 visits to the Etihad Stadium in all competitions against Man City (W2 D2), losing the last two.Manchester City have lost four of their last nine Premier League games (W5), as many as in their previous 72 combined (W56 D12).Arsenal have lost 11 of their last 19 away Premier League games (W5 D3), keeping just one clean sheet in that time, a 1-0 win at Huddersfield Town in May 2018.Since Roberto Firmino’s goal for Liverpool on January 3rd, Manchester City have scored 25 goals in a row without conceding at the Etihad in all competitions, winning their last four home games by an aggregate score of 24-0.Manchester City have lost three of their last seven Premier League games when scoring first – they had lost just three of their previous 96 matches when scoring the first goal.Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang scored his 25th Premier League goal in Arsenal’s last match against Cardiff, reaching that number faster than any other Gunners player in the competition’s history (37 games).Since August 20th, Manchester City have only won three more points in the Premier League (50) than Arsenal (47) and have lost more games (4) than the Gunners (3) in that time.Manchester City manager Pep Guardiola has never lost a match against Unai Emery in all competitions (W7 D4 L0) – the only manager he has faced more during his managerial career without losing is Joaquín Caparrós (13 games).Sergio Aguero has scored in seven of his last 11 matches against Arsenal in all competitions for Manchester City, though he hasn’t found the net in either of his last two.Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegram Manchester City will be looking to bounce back from their shock defeat at Newcastle when they host Arsenal today. Pep Guardiola’s side missed the chance to close to within a point of Liverpool as they were beaten 2-1 at St James’ Park last Tuesday.While Liverpool could not take full advantage as they drew with Leicester, there is now a five-point gap for City to make up ahead of a week that sees them play Arsenal, Everton and Chelsea.“It doesn’t matter how many points we are behind, we have to improve our game,” said City boss Guardiola. “We have done it before and we can do it again, but nothing changed whether we are one or two points behind or five, six, or seven. There are a lot of points to play for and a lot of things to happen.
Posted on April 4, 2011June 20, 2017By: Julianne Parker, Young Champion of Maternal HealthClick to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)This blog post was contributed by Julianne Parker, one of the fifteen Young Champions of Maternal Health chosen by Ashoka and the Maternal Health Task Force at EngenderHealth. She will be blogging about her experience every month, and you can learn more about her, the other Young Champions, and the program here.Managing any type of social enterprise is truly a tightrope act: you have to find this perfect balance between implementing effective programming, while also keeping yourself afloat administratively. Working with Lua Nova for the last six months has shown me the various strategies organizations in this precarious position use to make sure such a balance is met. I am consistently overwhelmed by the energy and dedication it takes to ensure that both sides of this equation are successful: to not only guarantee that the model for your enterprise is sustainable, but also to ensure that the needs of your target audience are being met.One of the most difficult obstacles to overcome is simply a question of human resources: successful social enterprises rely on a dedicated and effective staff network, but retaining that staff in a consistent and drama-free manner can prove nearly impossible. Unfortunately I have seen first-hand the ebbs and flow in staff problems here at Lua Nova the last months and the way such challenges hurt the effectiveness of the organization’s programming. At the same time, I’ve been so encouraged in this last month particularly as the organization has adopted a strong strategic focus on forming new sustainable partnerships, both institutional and personal, to ensure that all the fantastic programs Lua Nova offers to adolescent mothers can go forward.For example, rather than retaining one or two full-time and expensive staff to cover key sectors like income generation, Lua Nova is switching to a team model, partnering with local businesses and other individuals to come in and cover specific aspects of income generation: skills training, management, marketing, etc. In this way, there is a practical outreach to the private sector, the programming doesn’t suffer from employee burn-out, and there is a great diversification in the programming to maintain the interest and activity of the girls involved.My own role has thus been hugely strengthened, and I couldn’t be happier. Among other things, I’m now working with a few new partners to try and help strengthen the arts center here at Lua Nova through various small income-generation projects using the skills of sewing and craft. A few blogposts ago I lamented the challenges I faced in invigorating the will (vontade) of the girls at Lua Nova to participate in this arts-cum-income-generation project. I was struggling to manage everything on my own, when I lacked certain key skills (knowing how to operate a sewing machine as number one!) to make the project really take off. Now, with new partners involved, I can focus on the aspects that work best for me and my skill-set (designing therapeutic activities for the girls to get them to understand the “why” of what we are doing), while I can rely on others to teach sewing classes or design a marketing strategy for selling the finished products.This type of innovative partnering is incredibly exciting, and I am so eager to continue on in my last three months in Brazil, contributing to Lua Nova where I can, while learning bucket loads to contribute to whatever ventures I pursue after June.Share this: ShareEmailPrint To learn more, read: