Explore further Hasegawa, a scientist affiliated with the Atominstitut der Österreichischen Universitäten and PRESTO at the Japan Science and Technology Agency, feels that the most recent experiment undertaken by him and his colleagues will offer a new way to look at questions involving quantum information processing. The results of the experiment appear in Physical Review Letters with the title “Quantum Contextuality in a Single-Neutron Optical Experiment.”Hasegawa explains that photons are most often used in quantum information technology, but that he hopes that this recent experiment, which is fundamental in nature, will contribute to the consideration of different quantum systems, including neutrons, for quantum information processing. Hasegawa and his colleagues, Rudolf Loidl and Matthias Baron from the Atominstitut and from the Institut Laue Langevin in France, and Gerald Badurek and Helmut Rauch at the Atominstitut, suggest that noncontextual theories involving neutrons are clearly violated with the results of this experiment. This most recent experiment is related to a paper published in 2003 in the journal Nature. In the previous paper, Hasegawa and his colleagues address Bell-like inequalities found in neutrons. However, with this new experiment the Kochen-Specker theorem is tackled, looking at quantum contextuality: “We use a neutron interferometer, and the Schrödinger equation represents our phenomena. We wanted to show a contradiction in noncontextual theories. We wanted to show a prediction in quantum mechanics. There’s a contradiction in Kochen-Specker with photons, and we wanted to show it with neutrons.” Hasegawa explains that the experiment took place at Institut Laue Langevin (ILL) in France, with the largest reactor in the world, and made use of polarized neutron beams split inside the interferometer. With some manipulation, observations of three separate products were measured. After the analysis was performed, the values were found to be outside the limits predicted by noncontextual hidden variable theory. The contradiction was found.There is no way to obtain a completely ideal experimental situation, Hasegawa admits, but the interferometer was key to the experiment. “Our neutron interferometer experiment is one of the best suited for such a fundamental experiment.” He also points out that single neutrons were used. “Instead of two particles as usually used in two-photon entanglement experiments,” Hasegawa says, “we used two degrees of freedom in single particles.” Even though entanglement between different particles is considered essential for their use in quantum information processing, this does not appear to be the case with single-neutrons. With the use of entanglement between degrees of freedoms in this experiment, Hasegawa believes that single particles are good candidates for quantum information processing: “This neutron case is completely different from the photon case,” he says. “They have mass and spins and obey Schrödinger equation. This experiment shows that they can probably be used for information processing as well as for fundamental research in quantum mechanics just like photons.”Hasegawa continues: “I hope that this fundamental experiment can help with further technical development in quantum information processing.”By Miranda Marquit, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com.All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Can Neutrons be Used in Quantum Computers? (2006, December 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-12-neutrons-quantum.html The Quantum Cheshire Cat: Can neutrons be located at a different place than their own spin? “In quantum mechanics, you typically have arguments about locality and non-locality,” Yuji Hasegawa tells PhysOrg.com. “But in our experiment we are testing correlation between degrees of freedom.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Deaf children use hands to invent own way of communicating This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further © 2009 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Scientists have known for 40 years that even though it takes longer to use sign language to sign individual words, sentences can be signed, on average, in the same time it takes to say them, but until now they have never understood how this could be possible. Citation: Sign language puzzle solved (2009, December 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-12-language-puzzle.html More information: Frequency of Occurrence and Information Entropy of American Sign Language, Andrew Chong, Lalitha Sankar, H. Vincent Poor (Princeton University); arXiv:0912.1768; arxiv.org/abs/0912.1768 Sign languages such as American Sign Language (ASL) use hand gestures to indicate words, and are used by millions of deaf people around the world for communication. In American Sign Language every sign is made up a combination of hand gestures and handshapes. (The sign language for British English is quite different to ASL, and the two sign languages are not mutually intelligible.)Scientists Andrew Chong and colleagues at Princeton University in New Jersey have been studying the empirical entropy and redundancy in American Sign Language handshapes to find an answer to the puzzle. The term entropy is used in the research as a measure of the average information content of a unit of data. The fundamental unit of data of ASL is the handshape, while for spoken languages the fundamental units are phonemes. A handshape is a specific movement of the hand and specific location of the hand.Their results show that the information contained in the 45 handshapes making up the American Sign Language is higher than the amount of information contained in phonemes. This means spoken English has more redundancy than the signed equivalent.The researchers reached this conclusion by measuring the frequency of handshapes in videos of signing uploaded by deaf people to websites YouTube, DeafRead, and DeafVideo.tv, and videos of conversations in sign language recorded on campus. They discovered that the entropy (information content) of the handshapes averages at 0.5 bits per shape less than the theoretical maximum, while the entropy per phoneme in speech is around three bits below the maximum possible.This means that even though making the signs for words is slower, signers can keep up with speakers because the low redundancy rate compensates for the slower rate of signing. Chong believes the signed language has less redundancy than the spoken language because less is needed. The redundancy in spoken language allows speech to be understood in a noisy environment, but Chong explains the “visual channel is less noisy than the auditory channel”, so there is less chance of being misunderstood.The researchers speculated that errors are dealt with differently in signing and speaking. If hand gestures are not understood, difficulties can be overcome by slowing the transition between them, but if speech is not understood speaking phonemes for longer times does not always solve the difficulty.Understanding sign language and its information content is essential if automated sign recognition technology is to develop, and the language needs to be understood to allow sign language to be encoded and transmitted electronically by means other than video recordings. Two sign language interpreters working as a team for a school. Photo: Wikimedia Commons.
More information: via The Verge NTT Docomo’s new smartphone features wireless charger © 2012 Phys.Org
Under visible light illumination, the nanoscale photocatalysts perform the water-splitting reduction half-reaction with 100% efficiency. Credit: Lilac Amirav, Technion-Israel Institue of Technology The researchers, Philip Kalisman, Yifat Nakibli, and Lilac Amirav at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, Israel, have published a paper on the perfect efficiency for the water reduction half-reaction in a recent issue of Nano Letters.”I strongly believe that the search for clean and renewable energy sources is crucial,” Amirav told Phys.org. “With the looming energy crisis on one hand, and environmental aspects, mainly global warming, on the other, I think this is our duty to try and amend the problem for the next generation. “Our work shows that it is possible to obtain a perfect 100% photon-to-hydrogen production efficiency, under visible light illumination, for the photocatalytic water splitting reduction half-reaction. These results shatter the previous benchmarks for all systems, and leave little to no room for improvement for this particular half-reaction. With a stable system and a turnover frequency of 360,000 moles of hydrogen per hour per mole of catalyst, the potential here is real.”When an H2O molecule splits apart, the three atoms don’t simply separate from each other. The full reaction requires two H2O molecules to begin with, and then proceeds by two separate half-reactions. In the oxidation half-reaction, four individual hydrogen atoms are produced along with an O2 molecule (which is discarded). In the reduction half-reaction, the four hydrogen atoms are paired up into two H2 molecules by adding electrons, which produces the useful form of hydrogen: H2 gas. (Left) Transmission electron microscope images of the nanorod photocatalysts with (a) one and (b) two platinum tips. (Right) A comparison of the efficiencies shows the advantage of using a single platinum tip. Credit: Kalisman, et al. ©2016 American Chemical Society Journal information: Nano Letters (Phys.org)—Splitting water is a two-step process, and in a new study, researchers have performed one of these steps (reduction) with 100% efficiency. The results shatter the previous record of 60% for hydrogen production with visible light, and emphasize that future research should focus on the other step (oxidation) in order to realize practical overall water splitting. The main application of splitting water into its components of oxygen and hydrogen is that the hydrogen can then be used to deliver energy to fuel cells for powering vehicles and electronic devices. Explore further In the new study, the researchers showed that the reduction half-reaction can be achieved with perfect efficiency on specially designed 50-nm-long nanorods placed in a water-based solution under visible light illumination. The light supplies the energy required to drive the reaction forward, with the nanorods acting as photocatalysts by absorbing the photons and in turn releasing electrons needed for the reaction. Citation: Scientists achieve perfect efficiency for water-splitting half-reaction (2016, February 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-02-scientists-efficiency-water-splitting-half-reaction.html Clean energy from water © 2016 Phys.org The 100% efficiency refers to the photon-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, and it means that virtually all of the photons that reach the photocatalyst generate an electron, and every two electrons produce one H2 molecule. At 100% yield, the half-reaction produces about 100 H2 molecules per second (or one every 10 milliseconds) on each nanorod, and a typical sample contains about 600 trillion nanorods.One of the keys to achieving the perfect efficiency was identifying the bottleneck of the process, which was the need to quickly separate the electrons and holes (the vacant places in the semiconductor left after the electrons leave), and remove the holes from the photocatalyst. To improve the charge separation, the researchers redesigned the nanorods to have just one platinum catalyst instead of two. The researchers found that the efficiency increased from 58.5% with two platinum catalysts to 100% with only one.Going forward, the researchers plan to further improve the system. The current demonstration requires a very high pH, but such strong basic conditions are not always ideal in practice. Another concern is that the cadmium sulfide (CdS) used in the nanorod becomes corroded under prolonged light exposure in pure water. The researchers are already addressing these challenges with the goal to realize practical solar-to-fuel technology in the future.”We hope to implement our design rules, experience and accumulated insights for the construction of a system capable of overall water splitting and genuine solar-to-fuel energy conversion,” Amirav said. “The photocatalytic hydrogen generation presented here is not yet genuine solar-to-fuel energy conversion, as hole scavengers are still required. CdS is unfortunately not suitable for overall water splitting since prolonged irradiation of its suspensions leads to photocorrosion. We have recently demonstrated some breakthrough on this direction as well. The addition of a second co-catalyst, such as IrO2 or Ru, which can scavenge the holes from the semiconductor and mediate their transfer to water, affords CdS-based structures the desired photochemical stability. I believe this is an important milestone.” More information: Philip Kalisman, et al. “Perfect Photon-to-Hydrogen Conversion Efficiency.” Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04813 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
While the world waits for apocalypse to strike on 21 December, Sundeep Sharma wants to make each person muqaddar ka sikander. How? As the song lyrics suggest, the one who dies laughing is the king of his destiny.Under Banana Republican Comedy Party for Mango people, Sharma is all set to present his first solo comedy stand-up. He plans to take on everyone from international politicians to the drama unfolding in India and how in the recent few years the character of Delhi men have stooped lower than the floorboards of the DTC buses. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’‘To begin with, this show is not about boyfriend-girlfriend, sex, period stereotypes. It is a show with a deep insight into our social and political system,’ said Sundeep.The show will be hosted by two other known comedians in the Delhi circuit — Nishant Joke Singh and desi Jatt Yadvinder Singh Brar. Both will steer the show in English and Hinglish.‘The show is about the insights of a small town guy who has spent 12 years in Delhi and now divides his time between Delhi and Mumbai. After working for more than a decade as a voiceover artiste, I started performing at different pubs in Delhi and Mumbai and this show is my first brave attempt at performing in an auditorium full of people and cracking a few laughs,’ he added optimistically. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixIf the catastrophe is not enough, the man will face direct competition from the superstar of Bollywood with Dabangg 2 releasing the same day. Is he optimistic about footfalls? ‘Well, all the best to bhaijaan. I know I will surpass him easily and as a mark of respect will watch the film after my show,’ he joked.Sharma also wants to bring in the recent gangrape element to strike a chord. ‘To pay homage to the recent heinous gangrape, I will cover my mic with a black cloth and perform my act, which has both laughable moments and some introspective analysis of human nature,’ Sharma said.DETAILAt: LTG Auditorium, Copernicus Marg, near Mandi House When: 21 December Timings: 7.50 pm onwards Tickets: Available on bookmyshow.com
India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) took another step to celebrate its glorious past by unveiling – The Ashok – Capital Icon, a coffee table book at The Ashok in the Capital. Compiled as a chronicle, the book was released by Shripad Naik, Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Tourism and Culture who took special pride in unveiling the book. Parvez Dewan, Secretary, Ministry of Tourism and Sameer Sharma, Managing Director, ITDC were present at the ocassion. People from the Ministry of Tourism, other government departments and stakeholders from Travel and Hospitality sector also marked their presence. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Speaking on the occasion, Sameer Sharma said, ‘This is a proud moment for us to revisit all those cherished moments of our glorious history and share them with all of you as priceless treasures.’The book is written by veteran travel writers Hugh and Colleen Gantzer. The book captures the history of the The Ashok from the time of its conceptualisation in the 1955 to the present day. The hard bound compilation captures and at the same time refreshes the timeless moments from the independence era through 500 photographs illustrated in more than 275 pages. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe compilation starts from the distant age of the massive supercontinent Gondwanaland, on the far shore of the prehistoric Tethys weaving through the Mughals and the British eras. The book also talks about the post independence period and the origin of The Ashok. ‘The authors have spent a very long period to encompass the vast history of this rich heritage and its each milestone in one chronicle -The Ashok,’ says ITDC.
‘Fragrances from the North East a film festival is being organised in the Capital by the Directorate of Film Festivals, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. The festival will be screening some of the landmark movies of North East. Singer-composer Angaraag Mahanta (Papon) will be opening the festival along with his band The East India Company followed by the screening of the Mizo movie Khawnglung Run (The Raid of Khawnglung) directed by Mapuia Chawngthu. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The second day of the festival (23 August) will be screening four movies. Yarwng (Roots), Kokborok movie, directed by Joseph Pulinthanath; Phijigee Mani (The Only Jewel), in Manipuri, directed by O Gautam Singh; Sonam (The Fortunate One), in Monpa, directed by Ahsan Muzid and Ajeyo (Invincible), in Assamese, directed by Jahnu Barua will be screened at 10 am, 12.30 pm, 3.15 pm and 2 pm respectively. The closing day of the festival (24 August) will be screening the movies – Going the Distances, Nagemese movie, directed by Tiainla Jamir; Katha (The Tale), in Gorkhali, directed by Prashant Rasaily and Ri (Homeland of Uncertainity), in Khasi, directed by Pradip Kurbah at 10 am, 11 am and 6.30 pm respectively. The festival will end at a musical note of Nise Meruno and Nagaland singing ambassadors.After each screening the festival will feature quiz sessions on North-East. Adding some flavour to the festival, there will be special North East food stalls representing cuisines from all eight states of North-East.When: 22 – 24 AugustWhere: Siri Fort, Asian Games Village Complex
The Bureau of Indian Standards has taken positive steps towards giving impetus to Modi government’s ambitious “Make In India” campaign by proposing changes in the BIS Act,1986. The need for amendment to BIS Act,1986 accrued from situations demanding BIS to keep pace with the changing requirements of the industry.The BIS Act has never been amended since its enactment in 1986. Due to certain limitations, difficulties being faced in implementation and ambiguity of the provisions, amendment to the BIS Act, 1986, have become necessary. The stakeholders’ meet on the subject was held at BIS which was presided over by Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution Ram Vilas Paswan. The stakeholders included major industry associations including FICCI, ASSOCHAM, PHDCCI, CII, representatives from Ministry of Power, Ministry of Steel, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Health and Welfare and all consumer associations.